Written by  Erika

Ionization of sputtered Ti, Al, and C coupled with plasma characterization in HiPIMS

We are happy to announce that Daniel Lundin (Ionautics) , Martin Čada and Zdeněk Hubička (Fyzikální ústav) have a joint scientific article published at Plasma Sources Science and Technology! The article presents the Ionization of sputtered Ti, Al, and C coupled with plasma characterization in HiPIMS. Here you can find the link to the article:;jsessionid=C7EC9DE3260570586B7E921921738E10.c1


Ionization of sputtered Ti, Al, and C coupled with plasma characterization in HiPIMS

Daniel Lundin(1,2), Martin Čada (3) and Zdeněk Hubička(3)

Published 1 June 2015 • © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd • Plasma Sources Science and Technology, Volume 24, Number 3


The ionization of sputtered Ti, Al, and C has been investigated in non-reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges using Ar as a process gas. Two complementary techniques, time-resolved Langmuir probe diagnostics and a recently developed gridless ion meter, have for the first time been used to estimate absolute values of the ionized fractions of the sputtered material. To cover a range of commonly used discharge conditions we have carried out measurements for different process gas pressures, discharge current densities, and pulse lengths. It is found that by increasing the current density from 0.5 to 2.0 A cm−2 there is a general increase of ${{n}_{\text{e}}}$ independently of target material and position in time with maximum plasma densities of about 1   ×   1018–5   ×   1018 m−3 above the target race track. Also the ionized flux fraction, measured by ion meter, is increased when increasing the current density and reaches a maximum value of 78% in the Al discharge. By using the recorded ${{n}_{\text{e}}}$ and ${{T}_{\text{e}}}$ values to calculate the ionization probability of the sputtered material, and benchmark these results using the ion meter, we also show that Langmuir probe diagnostics is a useful tool to estimate trends and changes in the degree of ionization for different process conditions. .

Author affiliations

1 Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des Plasmas—LPGP, UMR 8578, CNRS—Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay, France

2 Division of Space and Plasma Physics, School of Electrical Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden

3 Fyzikální ústav Akademie věd ČR, v. v. i., Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8, Czech Republic



Received 22 January 2015

Accepted 5 May 2015

Published 1 June 2015




Last modified on Friday, 17 June 2016 07:40
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